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Project outcomes

Paraformaldehyde-coated electrochemical sensor for improved on-site detection of amphetamine in street samples

In this work, performed by the University of Antwerp, the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology, Swedish Customs Laboratory and Dutch Customs Laboratory, a highly practical paraformaldehyde (PFA)-coated sensor, which unlocks the detectability of primary amines through derivatization, is developed for the on-site detection of amphetamine (AMP) in seized drug samples. A potential interval was defined at the sole AMP peak (which is used for identification of the target analyte) to account for potential shifts due to fluctuations in concentration and temperature, which are relevant factors for on-site use.

Importantly, it was found that AMP detection was not hindered by the presence of common diluents and adulterants such as caffeine, even when present in high amounts. When inter-drug differentiation is desired, a simultaneous second test with the same solution on an unmodified electrode is introduced to provide the required additional electrochemical information.

Finally, the concept was validated by analyzing 30 seized AMP samples (reaching a sensitivity of 96.7 %) and comparing its performance to that of commercially available Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) devices.

Full article can be found here.


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